This Toolkit describes the process and model analyses that CBD colleges use to analyze students’ pathways, and design and evaluate their reforms.

Adult basic skills programs:

An instructional program for adults that includes courses designed to improve basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic.

Associate's degree:

An award earned for satisfactory completion of at least 2, but usually less than 4 years of full-time equivalent college work. CBD colleges report completions of Associate in Arts (A.A.), Associate in Science (A.S.), and Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.) degrees, and analysis can be conducted separately.

Attempters:

Students who attempt at least 9 college-level semester credits (usually equivalent to 3 courses) in a given program area in a given time period, whether or not they successfully complete them.

Bachelor's degree:

An award earned for satisfactory completion of 4 years of full-time equivalent college-level work. In some cases, students may complete their 4 years of college-level work in 3 years.

Certificate:

A formal award certifying the satisfactory completion of a postsecondary education program. CBD collects completions of less-than-1-year, and 1- to 2-year certificates, and analysis can be conducted separately.

Cohort:

A cohort is a group of people studied during a period of time. The individuals in the group have at least one statistical factor—such as when they started college—in common. Tracking a cohort makes it possible to compare progress and outcomes of different groups of students (i.e., groups defined by race, age or other demographic characteristics) and to determine if there are gaps in achievement among groups of interest. CBD cohorts include students who attempted at least one course during their first term in the following areas:

  • College (certificate or degree) credit
  • College remedial or developmental
  • Adult basic skills (ESL, ABE, or ASE/GED)
  • Non-credit vocational (includes courses that could potentially lead to an occupational certificate or certification, but does not include personal interest courses)
Completion by Design:

A five year initiative designed to help low-income young adults progress through community college more quickly and with a greater chance of success. The initiative’s goal is to substantially increase the completion and graduation rates for large number of students while holding down college costs and maintaining the quality of programs and services.

Completion pathway:

The integrated set of policies, practices, programs, and processes intentionally designed to maximize student completion across the loss-momentum framework.

Concentrators:

Students who successfully complete (with a grade of C or better) at least 9 college-level semester credits (usually equivalent to 3 courses) in a program area, in a given time period.

Dual enrollment:

A program that allows students to enroll in college courses while still enrolled in high school.

Entry-level courses:

The first or lowest-level college-level course students take in a subject such as mathematics, reading, or writing. (See Gateway courses.)

First-time in College:

A student who enrolls for the first time in college during the academic year with no previous college level experience or credential.

Full-time:

CBD considers a student enrolled full-time if he or she attempts 12 or more semester or quarter credits in a given term.

Gatekeeper courses:

The first or lowest-level college-level course students take in a subject such as mathematics, reading, or writing. (See Entry-level courses.)

Key Performance Indicators:

A set of metrics designed to measure students’ progress at each point of the institutions’ connection with the student—connection, entry, progress, and completion. KPIs are used to monitor institutional performance and the effects of improvement strategies to track student progression through academic milestones.

Loss points:

Points in a student’s academics where he/she losses academic momentum, or falls off his/her educational pathway.

Loss/Momentum Framework:

The guiding framework for Completion by Design, which is comprised of four stages that capture the student experience: 1) Connection (interest to application), 2) Entry (enrollment to completion of gateway courses), 3) Progress (steady progress toward completing program requirements), and 4) Completion (completion of program of value for further education and employment).

Milestones:

Measurable educational achievements that include both conventional terminal completions, such as earning a credential or transferring to a baccalaureate program, and intermediate outcomes, such as completing developmental education or adult basic skills requirements.

Momentum points:

Measurable educational attainments, such as completing a college-level math course, that are empirically correlated with the completion of a milestone.

Non-attempters:

Students who did not attempt at least 9 college-level credits (usually the equivalent of three courses) in any program area in a given period of time.

Non-concentrators:

Students who attempt to enter a concentration but do not successfully pass at least 9 semester credits (usually the equivalent of three courses) in a given time period.

Occupational certificate:

A program of study consisting of one or more courses, designed to prepare students for employment in a specific field.

Part-time:

CBD considers a student enrolled part-time if he or she attempts less than 12 semester or quarter credits in a given term.

Pathway analyses:

A tool that uses college data to pinpoint the dynamics of student loss and momentum from connection through completion.

Program of study:

A set of courses and related activities that lead to an attainment of educational objectives such as a certificate or an associate’s degree, sometimes referred to as “major” or “program code”.

Student Completion Metrics:

A set of metrics designed to measure highest educational outcomes achieved over a specific period of time. Usually computed for cohorts of students, especially those with no prior college experience for comparative purposes.

Student Pathway:

The route a student takes to connect with, enter, progress through, and complete his/her program of study.

Transfer:

A student who stops studying at the home institution and enrolls at another institution.

The Toolkit includes interactive templates, data definitions, and programming guidelines so colleges can conduct these model analyses with their own data.  Sample analyses and case studies are provided throughout to illustrate the uses of these analytics.

Adult basic skills programs:

An instructional program for adults that includes courses designed to improve basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic.

Associate's degree:

An award earned for satisfactory completion of at least 2, but usually less than 4 years of full-time equivalent college work. CBD colleges report completions of Associate in Arts (A.A.), Associate in Science (A.S.), and Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.) degrees, and analysis can be conducted separately.

Attempters:

Students who attempt at least 9 college-level semester credits (usually equivalent to 3 courses) in a given program area in a given time period, whether or not they successfully complete them.

Bachelor's degree:

An award earned for satisfactory completion of 4 years of full-time equivalent college-level work. In some cases, students may complete their 4 years of college-level work in 3 years.

Certificate:

A formal award certifying the satisfactory completion of a postsecondary education program. CBD collects completions of less-than-1-year, and 1- to 2-year certificates, and analysis can be conducted separately.

Cohort:

A cohort is a group of people studied during a period of time. The individuals in the group have at least one statistical factor—such as when they started college—in common. Tracking a cohort makes it possible to compare progress and outcomes of different groups of students (i.e., groups defined by race, age or other demographic characteristics) and to determine if there are gaps in achievement among groups of interest. CBD cohorts include students who attempted at least one course during their first term in the following areas:

  • College (certificate or degree) credit
  • College remedial or developmental
  • Adult basic skills (ESL, ABE, or ASE/GED)
  • Non-credit vocational (includes courses that could potentially lead to an occupational certificate or certification, but does not include personal interest courses)
Completion by Design:

A five year initiative designed to help low-income young adults progress through community college more quickly and with a greater chance of success. The initiative’s goal is to substantially increase the completion and graduation rates for large number of students while holding down college costs and maintaining the quality of programs and services.

Completion pathway:

The integrated set of policies, practices, programs, and processes intentionally designed to maximize student completion across the loss-momentum framework.

Concentrators:

Students who successfully complete (with a grade of C or better) at least 9 college-level semester credits (usually equivalent to 3 courses) in a program area, in a given time period.

Dual enrollment:

A program that allows students to enroll in college courses while still enrolled in high school.

Entry-level courses:

The first or lowest-level college-level course students take in a subject such as mathematics, reading, or writing. (See Gateway courses.)

First-time in College:

A student who enrolls for the first time in college during the academic year with no previous college level experience or credential.

Full-time:

CBD considers a student enrolled full-time if he or she attempts 12 or more semester or quarter credits in a given term.

Gatekeeper courses:

The first or lowest-level college-level course students take in a subject such as mathematics, reading, or writing. (See Entry-level courses.)

Key Performance Indicators:

A set of metrics designed to measure students’ progress at each point of the institutions’ connection with the student—connection, entry, progress, and completion. KPIs are used to monitor institutional performance and the effects of improvement strategies to track student progression through academic milestones.

Loss points:

Points in a student’s academics where he/she losses academic momentum, or falls off his/her educational pathway.

Loss/Momentum Framework:

The guiding framework for Completion by Design, which is comprised of four stages that capture the student experience: 1) Connection (interest to application), 2) Entry (enrollment to completion of gateway courses), 3) Progress (steady progress toward completing program requirements), and 4) Completion (completion of program of value for further education and employment).

Milestones:

Measurable educational achievements that include both conventional terminal completions, such as earning a credential or transferring to a baccalaureate program, and intermediate outcomes, such as completing developmental education or adult basic skills requirements.

Momentum points:

Measurable educational attainments, such as completing a college-level math course, that are empirically correlated with the completion of a milestone.

Non-attempters:

Students who did not attempt at least 9 college-level credits (usually the equivalent of three courses) in any program area in a given period of time.

Non-concentrators:

Students who attempt to enter a concentration but do not successfully pass at least 9 semester credits (usually the equivalent of three courses) in a given time period.

Occupational certificate:

A program of study consisting of one or more courses, designed to prepare students for employment in a specific field.

Part-time:

CBD considers a student enrolled part-time if he or she attempts less than 12 semester or quarter credits in a given term.

Pathway analyses:

A tool that uses college data to pinpoint the dynamics of student loss and momentum from connection through completion.

Program of study:

A set of courses and related activities that lead to an attainment of educational objectives such as a certificate or an associate’s degree, sometimes referred to as “major” or “program code”.

Student Completion Metrics:

A set of metrics designed to measure highest educational outcomes achieved over a specific period of time. Usually computed for cohorts of students, especially those with no prior college experience for comparative purposes.

Student Pathway:

The route a student takes to connect with, enter, progress through, and complete his/her program of study.

Transfer:

A student who stops studying at the home institution and enrolls at another institution.

The Toolkit is designed for use by community college institutional researchers and other data-oriented personnel who are working with their colleagues to improve student outcomes following the CBD principles for institutional redesign. This Toolkit is written primarily for community colleges with well-established data systems and the ability to construct longitudinal student unit record data files.

To make the most effective use of the resources and tools presented in this Toolkit, we recommend that colleges have the institutional research and information technology capability to conduct longitudinal cohort analyses using student unit record data. Although the primary audience for this Toolkit includes community colleges with strong institutional research and information technology capacity, all colleges that want to engage in a meaningful data-driven inquiry process to better understand their students’ experiences and progress, and redesign their practices to improve student outcomes will find the information presented here helpful.

 

What’s in the Toolkit?


To strengthen students’ pathways to completion, colleges need to have a clear understanding of how their students progress through the institution, where they struggle, and how their forward progress can be improved. CBD created the “Loss/Momentum Framework” (LMF) to help colleges systematically examine their students’ academic progress at each phase of a student’s experience, from first connection with the college to degree completion, and to better understand the factors that help or hinder students as they make their way through college.


To track the enrollment patterns, or pathways, of their students over time, CBD colleges conduct longitudinal analyses on cohorts of students. This Toolkit provides specifications for creating the longitudinal databases used to conduct CBD pathway analyses. Data definitions, derivation logic, and explanations on how to create files are provided, along with tips to ensure data quality.

This Toolkit is organized around a series of various analyses, which include:

To strengthen students’ pathways, CBD colleges start with students’ end goals and then move backwards, ensuring that programs and support services at each phase of the student’s experience are well designed and aligned to help students reach their goals. Reflecting the importance of starting with the end in mind, the CBD Student Completion Metrics measure rates at which students complete credentials or advance to further education. CBD defines completion as having earned an occupational certificate, two-year associate degree, transferring with a credential to a four-year institution, or earning a bachelor’s degree. The Student Completion Metrics provide a starting point for the CBD work and will help colleges track their performance in relation to the overarching CBD goal of substantially increasing completion rates while holding down costs and maintaining access.


Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are a set of measures developed by CBD to examine students’ progress through the phases of the LMF, identify areas needing further improvement, and monitor the effectiveness of improvement strategies. This Toolkit provides detailed descriptions of the KPI measures, how they are mapped to each phase of the LMF, and how they can be used to monitor institutional performance and to track student progression through intermediate milestones.


This Toolkit provides specifications for a variety of Loss/Momentum Analyses that allow colleges to understand where students lose momentum or fall off their educational pathways and, thus, where there are opportunities to redesign programs and supports to help students advance.


The CBD Terms and Glossary provides definitions for CBD-related terms used throughout the CBD work and this Toolkit.


 

About Completion By Design

The Completion by Design (CBD) initiative is designed to help community colleges increase completion rates for large numbers of students while holding down college costs and maintaining the quality of programs and services. To achieve this goal, CBD helps community colleges engage faculty and staff in a systematic process of inquiry that is based on data analysis, and a set of research-based principles for institutional redesign. The aim of the process is to make systemic changes in policies, programs, and practices that strengthen pathways for students to completion of credentials of value for further education and employment.

Adult basic skills programs:

An instructional program for adults that includes courses designed to improve basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic.

Associate's degree:

An award earned for satisfactory completion of at least 2, but usually less than 4 years of full-time equivalent college work. CBD colleges report completions of Associate in Arts (A.A.), Associate in Science (A.S.), and Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.) degrees, and analysis can be conducted separately.

Attempters:

Students who attempt at least 9 college-level semester credits (usually equivalent to 3 courses) in a given program area in a given time period, whether or not they successfully complete them.

Bachelor's degree:

An award earned for satisfactory completion of 4 years of full-time equivalent college-level work. In some cases, students may complete their 4 years of college-level work in 3 years.

Certificate:

A formal award certifying the satisfactory completion of a postsecondary education program. CBD collects completions of less-than-1-year, and 1- to 2-year certificates, and analysis can be conducted separately.

Cohort:

A cohort is a group of people studied during a period of time. The individuals in the group have at least one statistical factor—such as when they started college—in common. Tracking a cohort makes it possible to compare progress and outcomes of different groups of students (i.e., groups defined by race, age or other demographic characteristics) and to determine if there are gaps in achievement among groups of interest. CBD cohorts include students who attempted at least one course during their first term in the following areas:

  • College (certificate or degree) credit
  • College remedial or developmental
  • Adult basic skills (ESL, ABE, or ASE/GED)
  • Non-credit vocational (includes courses that could potentially lead to an occupational certificate or certification, but does not include personal interest courses)
Completion by Design:

A five year initiative designed to help low-income young adults progress through community college more quickly and with a greater chance of success. The initiative’s goal is to substantially increase the completion and graduation rates for large number of students while holding down college costs and maintaining the quality of programs and services.

Completion pathway:

The integrated set of policies, practices, programs, and processes intentionally designed to maximize student completion across the loss-momentum framework.

Concentrators:

Students who successfully complete (with a grade of C or better) at least 9 college-level semester credits (usually equivalent to 3 courses) in a program area, in a given time period.

Dual enrollment:

A program that allows students to enroll in college courses while still enrolled in high school.

Entry-level courses:

The first or lowest-level college-level course students take in a subject such as mathematics, reading, or writing. (See Gateway courses.)

First-time in College:

A student who enrolls for the first time in college during the academic year with no previous college level experience or credential.

Full-time:

CBD considers a student enrolled full-time if he or she attempts 12 or more semester or quarter credits in a given term.

Gatekeeper courses:

The first or lowest-level college-level course students take in a subject such as mathematics, reading, or writing. (See Entry-level courses.)

Key Performance Indicators:

A set of metrics designed to measure students’ progress at each point of the institutions’ connection with the student—connection, entry, progress, and completion. KPIs are used to monitor institutional performance and the effects of improvement strategies to track student progression through academic milestones.

Loss points:

Points in a student’s academics where he/she losses academic momentum, or falls off his/her educational pathway.

Loss/Momentum Framework:

The guiding framework for Completion by Design, which is comprised of four stages that capture the student experience: 1) Connection (interest to application), 2) Entry (enrollment to completion of gateway courses), 3) Progress (steady progress toward completing program requirements), and 4) Completion (completion of program of value for further education and employment).

Milestones:

Measurable educational achievements that include both conventional terminal completions, such as earning a credential or transferring to a baccalaureate program, and intermediate outcomes, such as completing developmental education or adult basic skills requirements.

Momentum points:

Measurable educational attainments, such as completing a college-level math course, that are empirically correlated with the completion of a milestone.

Non-attempters:

Students who did not attempt at least 9 college-level credits (usually the equivalent of three courses) in any program area in a given period of time.

Non-concentrators:

Students who attempt to enter a concentration but do not successfully pass at least 9 semester credits (usually the equivalent of three courses) in a given time period.

Occupational certificate:

A program of study consisting of one or more courses, designed to prepare students for employment in a specific field.

Part-time:

CBD considers a student enrolled part-time if he or she attempts less than 12 semester or quarter credits in a given term.

Pathway analyses:

A tool that uses college data to pinpoint the dynamics of student loss and momentum from connection through completion.

Program of study:

A set of courses and related activities that lead to an attainment of educational objectives such as a certificate or an associate’s degree, sometimes referred to as “major” or “program code”.

Student Completion Metrics:

A set of metrics designed to measure highest educational outcomes achieved over a specific period of time. Usually computed for cohorts of students, especially those with no prior college experience for comparative purposes.

Student Pathway:

The route a student takes to connect with, enter, progress through, and complete his/her program of study.

Transfer:

A student who stops studying at the home institution and enrolls at another institution.

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